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2019年Bodog英语(一)真题及答案解析

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  2019年Bodog现已完毕,小编特请网校专业教务教师对Bodog英语一真题进行了详细解析,请备战2020Bodog的学员对各知识点充沛了解并融会贯通。>>2020年Bodog英语一备考课程

  Section ⅠUse of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s)for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones.  1  of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones  2  on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize.  3  you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you  4  can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate  5  to civilization, one of which is to follow the land…

  When you find yourself well  6  a trail, but not in a completely  7  area, you have to answer two questions: Which  8  is downhill, in this particular area? And where is the nearest water source? Humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water.  9  , if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should  10  see signs of people.

  If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be  11  how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.

  Another  12  : Climb high and look for signs of human habitation.  13 , even in dense forest, you should be able to   14   gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve 15  the woods. Head toward these  16  to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for  17  light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.

  18 , assuming you’re lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the  19  we leave on the landscape. Trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can  20  you to civilization.

  1. [A]Some      [B]Most      [C]Few      [D]All

  【答案】C

  【解析】首句为主题句:今日,咱们生活在一个GPS系统,数字地图和其他导航使用程序都在咱们的智能手机上垂手而得的国际。空格地址句指出:咱们中_____在没有电话,个人GPS或其他导航东西的状况下直接走进树林。本句有without与few构成两层否定表必定,依据语义应该填入few(简直没有人),契合辞意。

  2. [A]put     [B]take     [C]run     [D]come

  【答案】C

  【解析】run on battery标明手机用电池发起,工作。其他选项:Put on (穿上;使工作);take on (承当;呈现);come on (快点;开端),语义不通畅。故正确答案为[C] run。

  3. [A]Since     [B] If      [C]Though      [D]Until

  【答案】B

  【解析】空格地址句译文:____你在没有电话或指南针的状况下走失,____找不到北方,咱们有一些技巧能够协助你导航____文明。此处为假定的状况,故填入if(假如)契合上下文的表达。其他选项:Since (由于;自从), though (尽管), until (直到)带入后,语义不通畅。故正确答案为[B] If。

  4. [A]formally      [B] relatively      [C] gradually      [D] literally

  【答案】D

  【解析】空格地址句译文:____你在没有电话或指南针的状况下走失,____找不到北方,咱们有一些技巧能够协助你导航____文明。此处literally标明确实地,真实地,带入原文语义通畅:你确实找不到北方。其他选项:Formally (正式地),relatively(相对地),gradually(逐渐地)带入后,语义不通畅。故正确答案为[D] literally.

  5. [A] back     [B] next      [C] around      [D] away

  【答案】A

  【解析】空格地址句译文:____你在没有电话或指南针的状况下走失,____找不到北方,咱们有一些技巧能够协助你导航____文明。前文讲lost(走失),此处填入back(回到)文明之地彼此照应,故正确答案为[A] back。

  6. [A]onto      [B]off     [C]across      [D]alone

  【答案】B

  【解析】空格地址句的句意为:当你____途径,但不是彻底______的区域,你需求答复两个问题:在这个特别区域,哪儿条路是下坡?哪儿里有最近的水源?经过后半句的问题,能够了解到前面是当你违背轨迹,迷失踪影的时分。B选项off (远离,脱离)契合语义要求;A选项onto(在…之上),C选项across(穿过,横穿),D选项alone(单独地,单独地)带入空格后,语义不通畅,均扫除。故正确答案为B选项off。

  7. [A]unattractive     [B] uncrowded      [C]unchanged      [D]unfamiliar

  【答案】D

  【解析】空格地址句的前一句说迷失踪影,违背轨迹。空格地址的后半句but最初,所填入的形容词词需求和前面构成转机的逻辑联络,尽管违背轨迹,但也不是彻底不了解的路。只要D选项unfamiliar(不了解的,不常见的)契合要求;A选项unattractive(不吸引人的),B选uncrowded(不拥堵的,宽阔的),C选项unchanged(未改动的,无变化的)带入后,语义不通畅。故正确答案为[D]unfamiliar。

  8. [A]site     [B]point      [C]way      [D]place

  【答案】C

  【解析】空格地址句的句意:你需求答复两个问题:在这个特别区域,哪儿个_____是下坡?哪儿里有最近的水源?空格场所需的名词需求契合上下文语境。C选项way(路途)契合语义要求;A选项site(地址,方位,场所),B选项point(关键),D选项place(当地,地址)带入空格后,语义不通畅,均扫除。故正确答案为C选项way。

  9. [A]So      [B]Yet      [C]Instead      [D]Besides

  【答案】A

  【解析】空格地址句的前一句指出:生活在山沟中的人,根本都靠淡水为生。后边也便是空格地址句:_______假如你下山,沿着水走,你会发现人类的痕迹……很显着空格场所填入的连词和前面构成因果的逻辑联络,只要A选项So(所以,因而)契合要求;B选项Yet(可是,但是),C选Instead(替代,反而),D选项Besides(此外,并且)带入后,语义不通畅。故正确答案为[A]So。

  10. [A]immediately      [B] intentionally      [C]unexpectedly      [D] eventually

  【答案】D

  【解析】空格地址句的句意:所以假如你下山,沿着你找到的水一直走,你______会看到人类的痕迹……,空格场所需的副词需求契合本句语境并是语句语义通畅。D选项eventually (最终,总算)契合语义要求;A选项immediately(当即,马上),B选项intentionally(故意地,有意地),C选项unexpectedly(意外地,出人意料地)带入空格后,语义不通畅,均扫除。故正确答案为D选项eventually。

  11. [A]surprised      [B]annoyed      [C]frightened      [D]confused

  【答案】A

  【解析】空格地址句说到:If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be surprised how quickly spotting a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings(假如你之前去过这个当地,必定要留意了解的现象,你或许会____快速辨认出一块特征显着的岩石或树木能协助你康复回忆)。此句显着表现了活跃褒义的爱情颜色,依据这个头绪,可直接确认A选项surprised为正确答案,即:你或许会感到惊奇……

  12. [A] problem      [B]option      [C]view      [D]result

  【答案】B

  【解析】本文榜首段说到:“假如你在没有电话或指南针的状况下走失了,并且你真的找不到北方,咱们有一些技巧能够协助你回到文明社会”。空格地址处说到:另一个___: 登到高处寻觅有人类居处的标志,因而此处的another__应该与tricks构成总分联络,即,空格场所填的名词应与tricks语义附近。只要B选项option(挑选,办法)契合要求。

  13. [A] Above all      [B]In contrast      [C] On average      [D] For example

  【答案】D

  【解析】空格前说到“另一个办法便是登高来寻觅有人类寓居的标志”,关键词为:look for signs;空格后说到“在茂盛森林里,你应该能够发现由于路途、电缆、火车轨迹和人们在树林中拓荒的其他路途而形成的树木之间的空地”,关键词为:spot gaps。而look for与spot语义附近,signs为抽象名词,gaps为详细名词,因而空格前后表是比如联络或总分联络,故D选项for example(例如)为正确答案。

  14. [A]bridge   [B]avoid    [C]spot     [D]separate

  【答案】C

  【解析】本题空格地址句是对前面语句的比如,故主题一同,因而空格处需填入的动词需和look for语义附近,故挑选spot(辨认,发现)。

  15. [A] from      [B] through      [C]beyond      [D] under

  【答案】B

  【解析】空格处需填入介词来和前面的动词carve及后边的名词woods构成顺利的语义调配。Carve____woods:在森林中拓荒路途, B选项 through用法最恰当,故为正确答案。

  16. [A] posts      [B]links      [C]shades      [D]breaks

  【答案】D

  【解析】本题空前有一个指示代词these,经过语义,“these 16 ” 指代上文的“roads, train tracks, and other paths”,并由定语从句“people carve through the woods”(人们在森林中拓荒的……)润饰。从语义上来看,breaks最合适。

  17. [A] artificial     [B] mysterious              [C] hidden      [D] limited

  【答案】A

  【解析】本空所在的语句“scan … for 17 light sources”,与本段最初 “look for sign of human habitation ”结构一同,语义相关,空格场所填形容词和human意思附近,挑选artificial “人工的”。除此之外,17题后边“such as fires and streetlights,”所罗列的两种光源的一同特征便是artificial。

  18. [A] Finally       [B] Consequently   [C] incidentally [D] Generally

  【答案】D

  【解析】空后为条件状语从句“assuming you ”,与上文的“If you”构成顺接递进联络,选项中,只用finally表顺接。

  19. [A] memories   [B] marks              [C] notes        [D] belongings

  【答案】B

  【解析】空后的定语从句“we leave on the landscape”,由语义得知此处应该填“符号”,所以选marks。

  20. [A] restrict       [B] adopt               [C] lead          [D] expose

  【答案】C

  【解析】所填动词需求与主语 “tire blazes, tire tracks and other fearures”(轮胎,轮胎痕迹和其他符号),宾语you,以及不定式 to civilization(文明)之间构成完好语义,所以此处填lead“引导”最合适。

  【试题点评】完型填空为了测验考生实践使用英语的才能和语感。详细说来,是从语篇的视点归纳测验考生的阅览了解才能、词汇的把握和对英语习惯用语的了解程度、以及语法规矩的灵活运用。这部分咱们必定要重视思路和寻觅头绪才能的操练,一般做题的根本思路是,依据已知信息去填空,依据空前后的头绪来挑选填什么。比方说,标题让考生填主句的内容,那么从句中就会有相应的阐明。标题让考生填动词,原文常常在其他当地呈现这个动词的近义词。那么怎么判别呢?首要依据需求填写动词后边呈现的宾语,找到有同一宾语的语句,该句中的动词便是所需填写词的近义词。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网强化阶段英语强化班的完型填空部分有要点解说。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Financial regulations in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but also bu all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.

  “Short-termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist. Andrew Haldane. He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “Children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.

  The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. This has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”。

  In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shortens attention spans in financial markers. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in speech this week.

  In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “ a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.

  Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. In France, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.

  Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.

  21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the_________.

  A. enhance banker’s sense of responsibility

  B. help corporations achieve larger profits

  C. build a new system of financial regulation

  D. guarantee the bonuses of top executives

  【答案】A

  【解析】依据题干关键词“paragraph 1”和“one motive in imposing the new rule”回文定位在榜首段第三句“The main purpose of this ‘clawback’ rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institutions.”,能够得出答案。

  22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate_________.

  A. the conditions for generating quick profits

  B. governments’ impatience in decision-making

  C. the solid structure of publicly traded companies

  D. “short-termism” in economics activities

  【答案】D

  【解析】依据题干中的“Alfred Marshall”回文定位在第二段最终一句“Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like…”,能够得出答案。

  23. It is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be__________.

  A. indirect

  B. adverse

  C. minimal

  D. temporary

  【答案】B

  【解析】依据题干关键词“Transient investment”定位第三段第二句,“Transient investors, … can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty”能够得出答案。

  24. The US and France examples are used to illustrate____________.

  A. the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”。

  B. the significance of long-term thinking.

  C. the approaches to promoting “long-termism”。

  D. the prevalence of short-term thinking.

  【答案】C

  【解析】依据题干定位到第五、六段,第五段为美国的比如,第六段为法国的比如,(第五段中美国推迟发放才就任一年左右的高管绩效补贴,继而促进缓解“短期主义”盛行的现状;第六段在法国持股两年以上者具有更大的选票权。)第六段首句承上启下讲到“Much more could be done to encourage ‘long-termism’”促进“长时间主义”还有许多做法。能够得出答案。

  25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  A. Failure of Quarterly Capitalism

  B. Patience as a Corporate Virtue

  C. Decisiveness Required of Top Executives

  D. Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers

  【答案】B

  【解析】依据题干关键词best title可知这是一道典型的宗旨粗心题。依据全文能够得出答案。

  Grade inflation--the gradual increase in average GPAs(grade-point averages)over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. But another, related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”—is helping raise GPAs.

  Grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student’s overall GPA.

  The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition)and improve their graduation rates. When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. But now most colleges save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.

  College officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty. “Untimely,” said Jack Miner, Ohio State University’s registrar,“we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”

  That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. For public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. And anything that raises GPAs will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.

  Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.

  26. What is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?

  A.The change of course catalogs.

  B.Students’ indifference to GPAS.

  C.Colleges’ neglect of GPAS.

  D.The influence of consumer culture.

  【答案】D

  【解析】依据题干信息词定位到首段榜首句,语句骨干“Grade inflation is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education”能够得出答案。

  27.What was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?

  A. To help freshmen adapt to college learning.

  B. To maintain colleges’ graduation rates.

  C. To prepare graduates for a challenging future.

  D. To increase universities’ income from tuition.

  【答案】A

  【解析】依据题干要求定位到第三段第二句。该句中的this practice对应题干中的grade forgiveness,first started对应题干中的original,而不定式短语to give them(freshmen)a second chance…if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses(假如大一重生在都向大学课程的过渡中有问题的话在给他们一次时机……)为意图,对应题干中的purpose,故正确答案应为[A]选项To help freshmen adapt to college learning(协助大一重生习惯大学学习)。

  28. According to Paragraph 5,grade forgiveness enable colleges to_________.

  A. obtain more financial support

  B. boost their student enrollments

  C. improve their teaching quality

  D. meet local governments’ needs

  【答案】A

  【解析】依据题干关键词 “paragrph 5”,以及“grade forgiveness”和“colleges”定位到第五段榜首句话。能够得出答案。

  29.What does the phrase “to be aligned”(Line 5, Para.6)most probably mean?

  A. To counterbalance each other.

  B. To complement each other.

  C. To be identical with each other.

  D. To be contradictory to each other.

  【答案】C

  【解析】依据标题定位到第6段最终一句:On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.处理本题的关键是this指代的内容,依据上文Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead to a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible-or at least appear to be. 能够得出答案。

  30.The author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by________.

  A. assessing its feasibility

  B. analyzing the causes behind it

  C. comparing different views on it

  D. listing its long-run effects

  【答案】B

  【解析】依据题干,表面上问作者经过什么论说办法来讨论grade forgiveness的实践操作,其实是考全文的宗旨写作办法,归于宗旨粗心题。依据全文能够得出答案。

  Text 3

  This year marks exactly two countries since the publication of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.

  Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI)raises fundamental questions:”What is intelligence, identify, or

  consciousness? What makes humans humans?”

  What is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. Yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi TV series such as “Westworld” and “Humans”。

  Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman, a Stanford University neuroscientist. “We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousnesss actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”

  But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand. The coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. Human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. Their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes, input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. AI “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.

  Whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes Tan Kiat How, chief executive of a Singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of AI. Along with Singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. Britain is setting up a data ethics center. India released its AI ethics strategy this spring.

  On June 7 Google pledged not to “design or deploy AI” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop AI-directed weapons or use AI for surveillance that would violate international norms. It also pledged not to deploy AI whose use would violate international laws or human rights.

  While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. So does the idea that decisions made by AI systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.

  To put it another way: How can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s highest values? Only then will they be useful servants and not Frankenstein’s out-of-control monster.

  31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is mentioned because it

  A. fascinates AI scientists all over the world.

  B. has remained popular for as long as 200 years.

  C. involves some concerns raised by AI today.

  D. has sparked serious ethical controversies.

  【答案】C

  【解析】由题干表述可判别本题为典型的观念比如题,所证观念就在比如前后,该比如呈现在篇首,引出主题在后。由此可知本题定位句为榜首段最终一句话。由此能够得出答案。

  32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness

  A. helps explain artificial intelligence.

  B. can be misleading to robot making.

  C. inspires popular sci-fi TV series.

  D. is too limited for us to reproduce it.

  【答案】D

  【解析】依据题干中的David Eagleman定位到文中第四段榜首句,该段第二句there are no good theories与题干中的knowledge归于等价代换,该段第二句中的consciousness与题干中的consciousness对应,榜首句标明光人们怎么考虑就杂乱到难以了解的程度更不用说要仿制它了,第二句标明咱们没有解说什么是consciousness的理论,与选项D契合。

  33. The solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles

  A. can hardly ever be found.

  B. is still beyond our capacity.

  C. causes little public concern.

  D. has aroused much curiosity.

  【答案】B

  【解析】题干中的autonomous vehicles定位到第五段第二句。该句呈现for example,可知autonomous vehicle是详细的比如。篇中的比如是为了证明观念,应往前看,即证明榜首句的观念:触及人工智能的品德问题在咱们身边(留意这儿doesn’t和aren’t为两层否定),阐明问题仍然存在。由此能够得出答案。

  34. The author’s attitude toward Google’s pledge is one of

  A. affirmation.

  B. skepticism.

  C. contempt.

  D. respect.

  【答案】A

  【解析】依据题干中的the author’s attitude,Google’s pledges。回文定位到第七段,第八段,但其七段都是在讲Google’s pledge,持续看第八段,最初while,转机,while the statement is vague,与vague相反的便是观念,这个当地没有说是谁的观念,无人认领的观念便是作者的观念。由此能够得出答案。

  35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  A. AI’s Future: In the Hands of Tech Giants

  B. Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI

  C. The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable

  D. AI Shall Be Killers Once Out of Control

  【答案】C

  【解析】本文首段经过引证Mary Shelley的书引出本文要讨论的论题新技术所引发的品德问题。第二段更是明确指出AI引起了一些问题。第三段和第四段对第二段提出的两个问题进行了详细的论说,标明咱们并不能确认智能化的程度以及由于所在环境的杂乱无法界说人类自我认识。而在第五段转机之后明确指出AI所触及的品德问题现已触手可及了。全篇复现了AI和conscience这两个关键词,因而正确答案为C。

  Text 4

  States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.

  The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. The decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.

  The cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customer’s purchase to a state where the business didn’t have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office, the business didn’t have to collect sales tax for the state. Customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the state themselves if they weren’t charged it, but most didn’t realize they owed it and few paid.

  Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. “Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the States,” he wrote in an opinion joined by four other justices. Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”

  The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already. Now, rivals will be charging sales tax where they hadn’t before. Big chains have been collecting sales tax nationwide because they typically have physical stores in whatever state a purchase is being shipped to. Amazon.com, with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in every state that charges it, though third-party sellers who use the site don’t have to.

  Until now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have been able to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states. Sellers that use eBay and Etsy, which provide platforms for smaller sellers, also haven’t been collecting sales tax nationwide. Under the ruling Thursday, states can pass laws requiring out-of-state sellers to collect the state’s sales tax from customers and send it to the state.

  Retail trade groups praised the ruling, saying it levels the playing field for local and online businesses. The losers, said retail analyst Neil Saunders, are online-only retailers, especially smaller ones. Those retailers may face headaches complying with various state sales tax laws. The

  Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council advocacy group said in a a statement, “Small businesses and internet entrepreneurs are not well served at all by this decision.”

  36. The Supreme Court decision Thursday will

  A. Dette business’ relutions with states

  B. put most online business in a dilemma

  C. make more online shoppers pay sales tax

  D. forces some states to cut sales tax

  【答案】C

  【解析】依据题干关键词”The Supreme Court Decision Thursday”定位到首段首句,States will be able to force more shoppers to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.由该句可知,最高法院的判定能够让州政府去强制顾客在网上购物时要上缴销售税(营业税),直接得出选项C。

  37. It can be learned from paragraphs 2 and 3 that the overruled decisions

  A.have led to the dominance of e-commerce

  B.have cost consumers a lot over the years

  C.were widely criticized by online purchases

  D.were considered up favorable by states

  【答案】D

  【解析】依据题干定位规模确认为第二,三段,再依据题干细节: overruled decisions确认定位句为第二段的榜首句与第二句,第二句that states said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually州政府诉苦之前的方针导致每年税收损失惨重。第三句The decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases,原方针让州政府很难收取网上购物的营业税。归纳两句情感颜色都为负向,对州政府晦气,然后得出答案为D。

  38.According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, the physical presence rule has

  A.hindered economic development

  B.brought prosperity to the country

  C. harmed fair market competition

  D. boosted growth in states revenue

  【答案】D

  【解析】依据题干定位Anthony Kennedy定位在第四段,再依据题干细节physical presence rule确认定位句为第四段的第二句与第三句。第二句"Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the States,实体店规则导致州政府税收亏本严峻,第三句the rule "limited States' ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.该规则约束了州政府持长时间昌盛,并阻碍了一切商场参与者公平竞争,然后得出答案为D。

  39. Who are most likely to welcome the Supreme Court ruling

  A. Internet entrepreneurs   B. Big-chair owners

  C. Third-party sellers      D. Small retailers

  【答案】B

  【解析】依据题干定位规模确认为第五段,再依据题干细节: more likely to welcome the Supreme Court ruling确认定位句为第五段的榜首句,榜首句the ruling is a victory for big chains这项判定关于大型连锁公司来说是个成功。然后得出答案为B。

  40.In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday, the author

  A.gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences

  B.describes the long and complicated process of its making

  C.presents its main points with conflicting views on them

  D.cities some saces related to it and analyzes their implications

  【答案】D

  【解析】依据各段宗旨能够看出作者的行文思路为:首段先介绍新判定,然后二三四段列出一些与此有关的事例,五六七段论其对行业界各界的影响。由此得出正确选项为D。

  【试题点评】本年四篇文章难度一般。在咱们全体的Bodog阅览傍边,所需求具有的一个最重要的才能便是怎么去看到标题之后,定准了位,并且找到那个咱们真实应该找到的方位,在四个选项傍边去找意思的原文最匹配的选项。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网强化阶段英语强化班阅览了解部分有要点解说。

  Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraph C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  A. These tools can help you win every argument-not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. Learning why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together with them. If we readjust our view of arguments—from a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasoned exchange through which we all gain mutual respect, and understanding—then we change the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.

  B.Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. We need to learn how to evaluate them properly. A large part of evaluation is calling out bad arguments, but we also need to admit good arguments by opponents and to apply the same critical standards to ourselves. Humility requires you to recognize weakness in your own arguments and sometimes also to accept reasons on the opposite side.

  C.None of these will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. Next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.

  D.Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them. Like physical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. Even when you win, you end up no better off. Your prospects would be almost as dismal if arguments were even just competitions-like, say, tennis games. Paris of opponents hit the ball back and forth until one winner emerges from all who entered. Everybody else loses. This kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about politics and religion.

  E.  In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People , Dale Carnegie wrote: “there is only one way…to get the

  best of an argument-and that is to avoid it. “This aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives- and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the first place.

  F.These views of arguments also undermine reason. If you see a conversation as a fight or competition, you can win by cheating as long as you don’t get caught. You will be happy to convince people with bad arguments. You can call their views stupid, or joke about how ignorant they are. None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win-in one way.

  G.There is a better way to win arguments. Imagine that you favor increasing the minimum wage in our state, and I do not. If you yell, “yes,” and I yell. “No,” neither of us learns anything. We neither understand nor respect each other, and we have no basis for compromise or cooperation. In contrast, suppose you give a reasonable argument: that full-time workers should not have to live in poverty. Then I counter with another reasonable argument: that a higher minimum wage will force businesses to employ fewer people for less time. Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.

  【答案】41、E    42、D    43、G    44、B     45、A

  【解析】

  41. G阶段最初为there is a better way…呈现一个比较级,阐明是和前面的一个办法相比较,因而不能做段首;A阶段these tools最初,呈现代词,不能组为段首;B阶段many discussions are not so successful,呈现词汇so,为代词,指代上面说的successful discussion,因而不能做句首;这样只剩D和E阶段,D阶段最初Carnegie would be right if…,这儿呈现了对人物观念进行正确与否的判别,判别正确与否的条件是首要要说到此人的存在以及其观念详细是什么,所以D阶段不能为段首,因而此题答案为E。

  42、首段提及到Carnegie以及他书中的观念,依据人物头绪,本题优先挑选呈现人物复现的阶段,阅览剩下的阶段发现只要选项D呈现了Carnegie这个人。对这两个选项稍加剖析得知,榜首段论说了Carnegie书中的观念,D选项论说作者对此观念的谈论,契合立论型文章的华章结构。再者,依据已知阶段F句首呈现的代词指代头绪也能得出答案。F首句说到These views of arguments与D阶段尾句中的this kind of thinking 为同义复现,因而D为正确答案。

  43、该选项坐落F项之后,F段最终一句“but they can help you win-in one way”中有“help you win-in one way”,而G段首句“There is a better way to win arguments.”的“a better way to win”是对“help you win-in one way”的进一步阐明。因而G段则接着F段。

  44、本题方位为C的上一段。所以咱们只需找到一段的尾句能够与C段首句进行相关即可。C段的榜首句话:None of this will be easy…others refuse to…,句意为这样不容易,即便他人回绝,但你能够开端…下文持续说到从反方面来对待你的观念。不难发现B项最终一句话说到了recognize weakness…accept …on the opposite side…,此处opposite和refuse均为同义复现的替换词。此外,B项段尾是从心理上对待相反的观念,而C段中state…ask…spell…assess等均为做出的举动。先有主意再付诸举动的次序也契合了B在前C在后,所以正确答案为B。

  45、已知阶段C段结尾两句话讲到Next time you state your position… Next time you talk with someone who… Assess its strength…由此可知阶段讲的都是一些协助获得争辩成功的做法技巧,这与A阶段最初的These tools can help you win every argument构成了照应,尤其是C段后Next time you talk with someone who 与A段最初but in the better sense of learning about the issues…一同都在讲关于他人观念的观念。因而确认答案选A选项。

  【试题点评】新题型要求考生从全体上把握文章的逻辑结构和内容上的联络,了解语句之间、阶段之间的联络,对比如连贯性、一同性等语段特征有较强的认识和娴熟的把握,并具有运用语法知识剖析了解长难句的才能。新题型有三种题型,不同的题型考察的要点不同,因而有不同的解题思路和技巧,需求考生全面把握,尤其是关于完形填句(段)题和排序题,是对言语才能和阅览了解才能的归纳测验,因而在要求上远远高于小标题挑选题和观念比如题,考生有必要对这类题型的答题思路多操练,以进步自己在这个部分的应试才能。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网强化阶段英语强化班部分有要点解说。

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  It was only after I started to write a weekly column about the medical journals, and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end, that I realised just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was. I came to recognise various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were 1.17 times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46)There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.

  Why is so much bad science published? A recent paper, titled “The Natural Selection of Bad Science”, published on the Royal Society’s open science website, attempts to answer this intriguing and important question. It says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it. What is important is not truth, but publication, which has become almost an end in itself. There has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47)nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago. Never mind the quality, then, count the number.

  (48)Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers. This is the famed citation index, that is to say the number of times a paper has been quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumption being that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49)This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.

  Boiling down an individual’s output to simple metrics, such as number of publications or journal impacts, entails considerable savings in time, energy and ambiguity. Unfortunately, the long-term costs of using simple quantitative metrics to assess researcher merit are likely to be quite great. (50)If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.

 

  【答案】

  (46)在医学杂志上有许多这样的废话。当被广播公司和非专业媒体报道时,这些废话会引起健康惊惧和时间短的饮食疯狂。

  (47)现在人们请求科研工作不只要宣布论文,并且所发论文的数量有必要比10年前的数量多1倍。

  (48)人们现已尽力去操控这一趋势,例如,企图经过将某种对论文质量和数量的衡量归入到请求人论文的评价中。

  (49)假如咱们仔细保证咱们的科学既有含义又可重复使用,那么咱们有必要保证咱们的研究机构鼓舞那种科学。

  (50)假如咱们仔细保证咱们的科学既有含义又可重复使用,咱们有必要保证咱们的准则鼓舞这种科学。

  【试题点评】翻译考察考生在精确了解的根底上,依照英语语法结构拆分语句,精确、通畅翻译汉语的才能。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网Bodog英语强化班的翻译部分有要点解说。

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Suppse you are working for the  “Aiding rurd Primary School”  project of your university. Write an email to answer the inquiry from an international student volunteer, specifying details of the project.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead.(10 points)

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay, you should

  1)describe the pictures briefly,

  2)interpret the meaning, and

  3)give your comments.

  You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

  2019年全国研究生考试英语(一)真题及答案解析

  【试题点评】详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网Bodog英语强化班的作文部分有要点解说。

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英语二
含导学、根底、强化、冲刺班 乔教师 计划 108 1600元 购买
数学(全程班)
含导学、根底、强化、真题、冲刺班 官教师 计划 120 1600元 购买
逻辑(全程班)
导学、根底、强化、冲刺 真题班 丁教师 计划 120 1600元 购买
写作(全程班)
含导学、根底、强化、冲刺班 胡元奎 计划 30 1200元 购买
管综(全程班)
含数学、逻辑、写作三部分的根底、强化、冲刺班 名师团 计划 270 4500元 购买
管综+英语二
英语二全程班+管综全程班 比单报优惠600元 名师团 计划 386 5800元 购买