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2019年Bodog英语(二)真题及答案解析

bodog官网   2018-12-24 12:04 【 】【我要纠错

  2019年Bodog现已完毕,小编特请网校专业教务教师对Bodog英语二真题进行了详细解析,请备战2020Bodog的学员对各知识点充沛了解并融会贯通。>>2020年Bodog英语二备考课程

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight fluctuations. 1 , when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it 2 .

  As for me, weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and physically active to focusing 3 on the scale. That was had to my overall fitness goats. I had gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of 4 the number on the scale, I altered my training program. That conflicted with how I needed to train to 5 my goals.

  I also found that weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate 6 of the hard work and progress I was making in the gym. It takes about three weeks to a month to notice any significant changes in your weight 7 altering your training program. The most 8 changes will be observed in skill level, strength and inches lost.

  For these 9 , I stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing schedule 10 . Since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to 11 my weight each week. Weighing every other week allows me to observe and 12 any significant weight changes. That tells me whether I need to 13 my training program.

  I use my bimonthly weigh-in 14 to get information about my nutrition as well. If my training intensity remains the same, but I’m constantly 15 and dropping weight, this is a 16 that I need to increase my daily caloric intake.

  The 17 to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health, fitness and well-being. I’m experiencing increased zeal for working out since I no longer carry the burden of a 18 morning weigh-in. I’ve also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals, 19 I’m training according to those goals, not the numbers on a scale.

  Rather than 20 over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel how your clothes fit and your overall energy level.

  1.[A]Besides [B]Therefore [C]Otherwise [D]However

  【答案】[C] However

  【解析】此处查询逻辑联络。首段提出文章中心:定时称量自己是一种解任何显着的的体重动摇的好办法。空格地点句指出:____,假如太频频,这种习气有时会构成危害。前文wonderful way(好办法)与后文hurt(危害)构成转机联络,故填入however(可是)。其他,however也是Bodog完形填空中的高频词。其他选项:therefore(因而),otherwise(不然)和besides(此外)此处不契合语境,故正确答案为[C] However。

  2.[A]helps [B]cares [C]warns [D]reduces

  【答案】[D] helps

  【解析】此处查询反义复现。空格地点句指出:this habit can sometimes hurt more than it ____(这种习气的害处要比____多),应该是help(有协助,有优点),与前文hurt(危害)构成反义复现。其他选项:Cares(关怀),warns(正告),reduces(削减,致使)均不能与hurt构成照应,故正确答案为[D] helps。

  3.[A]initially [B]solely [C]occasionally [D]formally

  【答案】[A] solely

  【解析】此处查询同义复现+词义剖析。空格地点句指出:至于我,每天称自己的分量让我把注意力从坚持健康和好动转移到____专心于体重秤。填入solely(仅仅)语义通畅。其他本句focusing solely on the scale中的solely(仅仅)与本段后文thinking only of ____ the number on the scale的only构成了同义复现。故正确答案为[A] solely。

  4.[A]recording [B] lowering [C]explaining [D]accepting

  【答案】[A] lowering

  【解析】此处查询词义剖析+反义复现。空格地点句指出:我从前以添加肌肉含量而增重,但后来只考虑____体重的数量,我改动了我的操练计划。填入lowering(削减)语义通畅。其他,该句中心有but,阐明前后为转接。lower与前文gain weight(增重)构成反义复现,其他选项:explaining(解说),accepting(承受),recording(记载)均不契合辞意。故正确答案为[A] lowering。

  【答案】[C] reach

  【解析】此处查询成分调配和语义了解。空格地点句指出:这与我需求操练以____方针的办法相抵触。此处填入reach(到达)与goal(方针)构成动宾调配,且语义通畅,表达连接。其他选项:set(设定),modify(修正)虽然可以与goal调配,但辞意不符;review(议论;温习)和goal不能构成调配。故正确答案为[C] reach。

  6.[A]definition [B]depiction [C]distribution [D]prediction

  【答案】[A] depiction

  【解析】此处查询词义剖析。剖析空格处地点句的句意:我还发现,每天称体重并不能为我在健身房所做的尽力以及取得的前进,供给精确的____,空格场所需的名词需求使语句完好通畅。A选项depiction (描绘,叙说)契合语义要求;B选项distribution(散布,分配),C选项prediction(预言,猜测),D选项definition(界说)带入空格后,语义不通畅,均扫除。故正确答案为A选项depiction。

  7.[A]due to [B]regardless of [C]aside from [D]along with

  【答案】[D] due to

  【解析】此处查询短语剖析。空格地点句的句意:需求大约三周到一个月的时刻来发现体重的显着改动,_____改动了你的操练计划。空格场所填入的短语需求和前面语句构成因果的逻辑联络,只要D选项due to(由于)契合要求;A选项regardless of(不论,不管),B选aside from(除…以外),C选项along with(与…一同,连同)带入后,语义不通畅。故正确答案为[D]due to。

  8.[A]orderly [B]rigid [C]precise [D]immediate

  【答案】[C] immediate

  【解析】此处查询词义剖析。剖析空格处地点句的句意:最____的改动将会表现在技术水平,力气和身高下降,空格场所需的形容词需求和后边的宾语change构成语义调配,而且合适语境。C选项immediate(当即的,直接的)契合语义要求;A选项rigid(严厉的),B选项precise(精确的),D选项orderly(有次序的)带入空格后,语义不通畅,均扫除。故正确答案为C选项immediate。

  9.[A]claims [B]judgments [C]reasons [D]methods

  【答案】[B] reasons

  【解析】此处查询固定调配。for these reasons由于这些原因。空格地点句指出:由于这些原因(上文说到的原因),我中止每天称体重。只要B选项reasons(原因)契合要求;A选项judgments(判别),C选methods(办法,办法),D选项claims(要求,索赔)带入后,语义不通畅。故正确答案为[B]reasons。

  10.[A]instead [B]though [C]again [D]indeed

  【答案】[D] instead

  【解析】此处查询词义剖析以及上下文语境剖析。空格地点句的前半部分指出:由于上述原因,我中止每天称体重。后半句话句意:而转而改用两个月称一次体重。switched to转而…与选项instead对应。D选项instead (替代,反而)契合语义要求;A选项though(虽然,虽然),B选项again(又,再一次),C选项indeed(确实,真实)带入空格后,语义不通畅,均扫除。故正确答案为D选项instead。

  11.[A]track [B]overlook [C] conceal [D]report

  【答案】A. track

  【解析】空格地点句说到:Since weight loss is not my goal(由于减重不是我的意图),it is less important for me to ____my weight each week(对我来说,每周___我的体重不太重要)。空格场所填入的动词需求和后边的宾语my weight构成通畅的动宾语义调配,除此之外,本文的主题是称重,因而需求查询、监测或盯梢体重的改动,因而只要A选项track契合语义与主题要求。

  12.[A]depend on [B]approve of [C]hold onto [D]account for

  【答案】C. account for

  【解析】空格地点句说到:Weighing every other week allows me to observe and _____any significant weight changes(每隔一周称次体重使我可以查询及____任何显着的体重改动),空格场所填入的动词需和后边的宾语weight changes构成通畅的动宾调配;一同,该动词还和observe构成并排联络,并排的动词会存在动作先后发作的特征(先查询到体重改动,再来了解或解说体重改动的原因),因而只要C选项account for(解说,了解)更恰当。

  13.[A]share [B]adjust [C]confirm [D] prepare

  【答案】B. adjust

  【解析】空格地点处说到:That tells me whether I need to ____my training program(那告诉我,我是否需求____我的操练项目)。空格场所填动词需求和后边的宾语training program 构成顺利的动宾语义联络;除此之外,that指代上文中“查询并了解体重改动”,因而此处应该标明,查询并了解体重改动能让我知道是否需求调整操练项目。因而B选项adjust契合要求。

  14.[A]results [B]features [C]rules [D]tests

  【答案】D. results

  【解析】空格处地点句说到:I use my bimonthly weigh-in____to get information about my nutrition as well(我依据两个月称重一次的___来取得关于我的养分方面的信息)。空格场所填名词需和bimonthly weigh-in构成顺利的语义联络,空格处上文说到“两个月称重一次可以查询并了解任何显着的体重改动”,因而空格处应该标明“称重成果”,故D选项results为正确答案。

  15.[A]bored [B]anxious [C]hungry [D]sick

  【答案】B. hungry

  【解析】空格处说到:if……I am constantly____and dropping weight, this is a sign that I need to increase my daily caloric intake(假如……我持续___以及体重下降,那么这是一个标志标明我需求添加日常卡路里摄入),依据条件状从和主句的条件与成果的逻辑联络,空格处填入“hungry(饥饿)”更契合语义要求。

  16.[A]principle [B]secret [C]belief [D]sign

  【答案】[C] sign

  【试题考点】上下文语义联接+名词剖析

  【解析】空格之前的“this”指代前面if引导的条件状语从句“假如我运动量坚持不变,但总是觉得饿而且体重下降”,空格后边that引导的定语从句“我需求添加每日卡路里的吸取”,依据前后语义,此空填sign“信号”最合理。

  17.[A]request [B]necessity [C]decision [D]wish

  【答案】[B] decision

  【试题考点】上下文语义联接

  【解析】空格后动词不定式结构“to stop weighing myself every day”作空格处名词的定语,“中止每天称体重这个_____”,依据语义,此处填decision“决议”最合理。

  18.[A]disappointing [B]surprising [C]restricting [D]consuming

  【答案】[D] disappointing

  【试题考点】上下辞意义联接+形容词剖析

  【解析】此空在 of介词短语中,润饰名词“burden担负”,依据语义颜色,此处应该填贬义词,因而disappointing“令人绝望的”最合理。

  19.[A]if because [B]unless [C]until [D]consuming

  【答案】[A] because

  【试题考点】上下文逻辑

  【解析】依据选项特征看出本题调查句内逻辑联络,前半句话“I’ve also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals”(我也更成功地完成了健身方针),后半句“I’m training according to those goals, mot the numbers on scale.”(我依据那些方针来操练,而不是体重数字。)此处应为因果联络,所以正确选项为because。此外,本句话中的“also”标明与前一句话之间的联络,前一句话中的since也标明因果联络。

  20.[A]obsessing [B]dominating [C]puzzling [D]triumphing

  【答案】[D] obssessing

  【试题考点】上线文联接+词义剖析

  【解析】依据选项特征,此空填入动词的现在分词,其逻辑主语为语句主语you,宾语为thescale,通过上文可知,作者关于“the scale”一向持否定情绪,因而此空依据语义颜色扫除dominating“操控”和triumphing“成功”,而puzzling over 标明“细心揣摩,冥思苦索”,与上下文语义不符。因而选obsessing“使困扰”。

  【试题点评】完型填空为了测验考生实践运用英语的才能和语感。详细说来,是从语篇的视点归纳测验考生的阅览了解才能、词汇的把握和对英语习气用语的了解程度、以及语法规矩的灵活运用。这部分咱们一定要重视思路和寻觅头绪才能的操练,一般做题的根本思路是,依据已知信息去填空,依据空前后的头绪来挑选填什么。比方说,标题让考生填主句的内容,那么从句中就会有相应的阐明。标题让考生填动词,原文常常在其他当地出现这个动词的近义词。那么怎么判别呢?首要依据需求填写动词后边出现的宾语,找到有同一宾语的语句,该句中的动词便是所需填写词的近义词。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网强化阶段英语强化班的完型填空部分有要点解说。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)

  Text 1

  Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.

  In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” says Amrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.

  And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.

  Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.

  In a 2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.

  “That’s good news,” Malti says. “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and we feel regret.”

  21.Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help______.

  A)regulate a child's basic emotions

  B)improve a child's intellectual ability

  C)foster a child’s moral development

  D)intensity a child's positive feelings

  【答案】C foster a child’s positive feelings

  【解析】依据题干“researchers”, “guilt”, “a good thing”要害词定位到榜首段终究一句,除此之外,提干中还有要害词“because”, 断定该题归于细节题中调查因果逻辑联络的标题,需求在原文中精准回文定位;原文中榜首段终究一段清晰出现了“This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt…a good thing.”依据代词向前文指代的准则,题干中所问的原因就在上一句,由“Children aren’t born knowing how to say ‘I’m sorry’, rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends----and their own conscience”,其间的“such statements appease parents and friends----and their own conscience”(该质量可以使爸爸妈妈/朋友和孩子自己都感觉更舒适),such statements指代的即为“say sorry”或文章主题词guilt, 纵观四个选型,只要C选项foster a child’s moral development(前进孩子的品德开展)可以完成同义替换,故为正确答案。其他选项A.regulate a child’s basic emotions (办理孩子根本心情)中的regulate原文未提及, B. improve a child’s intellectual ability(改进孩子的智力)中intellectual ability原文未提及,而D.intensify a child’s positive feelings(加强孩子的活跃感觉)在原文中未提及,故扫除。

  22.According to paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be______.

  A)deceptive

  B)burdensome

  C)addictive

  D) deception

  【答案】B burdensome

  【解析】 依据题干可知这是一个典型的细节题。依据题干要害信息 “paragraph 2, “ many people still consider guild to be”定位到第二段,终究确认对本段第二句话的了解,特别要害的是对第二句话中破折号的了解,“it is deeply uncomfortable-it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. ” (这种感觉十分不舒服,就像穿戴一件石头做的夹克相同) , 比照所给四个选项,只要 B 项“burdensome”(担负沉重的,深重的)与原文表述共同,故为最佳答案。 A项“deceptive” (诈骗的) C项“addictive”(上瘾的) 以及D项“inexcusable” (不行宽恕的)均与原文表述不共同,故扫除。

  23. Vaish hold that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that______.

  A)emotions are context-independent

  B)emotions are socially constructive

  C)emotional stability can benefit health

  D)an emotion can play opposing roles

  【答案】D an emotion can play opposing roles

  【解析】依据题干可知这是一个典型的细节题。依据题干要害信息 “Vaish holds that …awareness that.” 定位本文的第二段 “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking …can serve.”可是这句话是他的观念句,也便是题干信息地点句,本句没有答案,因而,依据线性思想,下文他又持续补充到“adding that this revival is a psychology researcher……in another ”(这种复兴是更大的知道的一部分,即心情不是二元情感,在一个情境中有利的心情在另一个情境中或许是有害的), 比照四个选项,只要 D“an emotion can play opposing roles” (心情可以起到相反的效果) 为最佳答案。A项“emotions are context-independent”(心情与语境无关)与原文表述相反。 B 项“emotions are socially constructive”(从社会视点讲,心情具有活跃性) 在文中没有提及。C项“emotional stability can benefit health”(心情稳定有利与身体健康) 在文中没有提及,故扫除。

  24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______.

  A. may help correct emotional deficiencies

  B. can result from either sympathy or guilt

  C. can bring about emotional satisfaction

  D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts

  【答案】B can result from either sympathy or guilt

  【解析】依据题干可知这是一道人物观念题。依据题干要害词“Malti and others have shown 与cooperation and sharing.”回文定位到第四段第三句:“Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing.” (马尔蒂和其他人现已标明,愧疚和怜惜或许代表了合作和共享的不同途径。) 比照四个选项,只要B项 can result from either sympathy or guilt(要么归因于怜惜,要么归因于愧疚)与原文表述共同,故为正确选项。A项may help correct emotional deficiencies(或许有助于改正情感缺点)与第四段第二句话… that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency(愧疚或许会补偿情感缺点)不符。C项can bring about emotional satisfaction(可以带来情感上的满意)并未提及。D项may be the outcome of impulsive acts (或许是激动行为的成果) 与第四段第三句…which can rein in their nastier impulses(这可以操控他们更糟糕的激动)因果倒置,故扫除。

  25. The word “transgressions” (Para.5) is closest in meaning to _______.

  A. teachings

  B. discussions

  C. restrictions

  D. wrongdoings

  【答案】D wrongdoings

  【解析】依据题干要求定位到第五段第二句话“Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child's overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions.” 且坐落主句的“transgressions”的前面出现to feel negative emotions,情感归于消沉贬义。比照四个选项,D项wrongdoings坏事,不品德的行为,归于贬义词,与其情感颜色共同,故为正确选项。A项teachings 教训,归于褒义词。B项discussions 议论,归于中性词 。C项restrictions 束缚;束缚,归于中性词,故扫除。

  Text 2

  Forests give us shade, quiet and one of the larder callenges in the fight against climate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit more carbon than they absorb.

  Thankfully, there is a way out of this trap-but it involves striking a subtle balance. Helping forests flourish as valuable “carbon sinks” long into the future may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. California is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out the details.

  The state’s proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest. This temporarily lowers carbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the available moisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forest’s capacity to pull carbon from the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off insects. The landscape is rendered less easily burnable. Even in the event of a fine, fewer trees are consumed.

  The need for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010, drought and insects have killed over 100 million trees in California, most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have burned hundreds of thousands of acres.

  California plans to treat 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000 by 2030- financed from the proceeds of the state’s emissions- permit auctions. That’s only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half a million acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.

  The strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of solid lumber or burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels. New research on transportation biofuels is already under way.

  State governments are well accustomed to managing forests, but traditionally they’ve focused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recently have they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon. California’s plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year, should serve as a model.

  26. By saying “one of the harder challenges,” the author implies that _______.

  A. global climate change may get out of control

  B. people may misunderstand global warming

  C. extreme weather conditions may arise

  D. forests may become a potential threat

  【答案】D forests may become a potential threat

  【解析】 依据题干信息词定位到首段。榜首句引出文章论题“在人类对立气候改动中,森林给咱们带来了一个更为艰巨的应战。”第二句指出人类正在要挟到森林吸收二氧化碳的才能。第三句“The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forest that emit more carbon than they absorb.”为本段的主题句,指出咱们人类所构成的气候改动问题终究会使得森林排放更多的二氧化碳,而不是吸收。即森林或许会要挟气候的恶化和人类的生计。故挑选D项“森林或许会变为一个潜在要挟。”

  27. To maintain forests as valuable “carbon sinks,” we may need to _______.

  A. preserve the diversity of species in them

  B. accelerate the growth of young trees

  C. strike a balance among different plants

  D. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity

  【答案】D Lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity

  【解析】依据题干要求定位到第二段。该段首句中的前半句there is a way out of this trap对应题干中To maintain forest as valuable “carbon sinks”, 后半句提出详细的处理办法it involves striking a subtle balance(这需求到达一个奇妙的平衡),但并没有说这个平衡是不同植被间的平衡,故不能据此选[C]strike a balance among different plants。紧接着第二句说到要到达这一意图或许需求reducing their (forests’) capacity to absorb carbon now(下降他们(森林)现在吸收碳的才能),由此可知正确答案应为[D]选项。

  28. California’s Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to _______.

  A. cultivate more drought-resistant trees

  B. reduce the density of some of its forests

  C. find more effective ways to kill insects

  D. restore its forests quickly after wildfires

  【答案】B reduce the density of some of its forests

  【解析】细节题做题的技巧是“精确认位和匹配”。依据题干要害词 “Forest Carbon Plan”定位至第三段榜首句话。题干中问题是“endeavor to”标明“尽力做…”对应文章中 “double efforts to” ,因而答案在这个短语之后即“thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest”标明的意思是使“森林里部分小树变稀少,整理部分灌木”,这与选项C中的“reduce the density of some of its fforests”即“下降森林的密度”共同。因而正确答案选C。

  29. What is essential to California’s plan according to Paragraph 5?

  A.To handle the areas in serious danger first.

  B.To carry it out before the year of 2020.

  C.To perfect the emissions-permit auctions.

  D.To obtain enough financial support.

  【答案】A To handle the areas inserious danger first

  【解析】依据标题定位到第5段,标题What is essential to California's plan 中的essential可回文定位,对应原文中的so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought的vital,这以后的prioritize对应选项中的handle…first,areas at greatest risk对应选项中的the areas in serious danger,故正确选项为A。

  30. The author’s attitude to California’s plan can best be described as _______.

  A. ambiguous

  B. tolerant

  C. supportive

  D. cautious

  【答案】C supportive

  【解析】依据题干要害词“attitude”,可确认是情绪题。做情绪题的中心是把握显着爱情颜色的要害词,即可快速得出答案。而在文章的终究一段,往往会出现本文的定论,简单出现爱情颜色的要害词。依据终究一段终究一句,California's plan, which is ……, should serve as a model (California的计划应该可以起到典范效果),model是一个活跃颜色的词汇,所以答案选B supportive 支撑的。

  Text 3

  American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years. The complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.

  Congress has obstructed efforts to create a more straightforward visa for agricultural workers that would let foreign workers stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry. If this doesn’t change, American businesses, communities, and consumers will be the losers.

  Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the country, the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled rather than migrating and more likely to be married than single. They’re also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now more than half are. And picking crops is hard on older bodies. One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it’s been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm.

  Mechanization isn’t the answer, either—not yer, at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, and wheat has been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive corps, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots do a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they’re automated.

  As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.

  The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 a year. Even so, employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive, and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led the average H-2A worker to arrive on the job 22 days late. The shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.

  In a 2012 survey, 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and almost 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western farmers have responded by moving operations to Mexico. From 1998 to 2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit Americans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share of imports was 25.8 percent.

  In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.

  31. What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?

  A. Discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S.

  B. Biased laws in favor of some American businesses.

  C. Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers.

  D. Decline of job opportunities U.S. agriculture.

  【答案】 [C] Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers

  【解析】依据题干提示词first two paragraphs可知本题依据文章前两段命制,为双段推理型标题。快速扫读可知前两段大意为:美国针对外来农人所定移民规矩中存在一些问题,并指出如不及时处理美国商业,社会以及顾客都会受到影响。比对选项可直接判别正确选项为C项,其他选项均属惹是生非,直接扫除。

  32. One trouble with U.S. agricultural workforce is .

  A. the rising number of illegal immigrants

  B. the high mobility of crop workers

  C. the lack of experienced laborers

  D. the aging of immigrant farm workers

  【答案】[D] the aging of immigrant farm workers

  【解析】细节推理题。依据题干中的trouble, U.S. agricultural workforce以及阶段序列定位到文中第三段第二句。定位段第三至七句都在证明第二句的内容,其间第三句证明的是劳动力的来历及其倾向,第四至七句证明的是劳动力在变老并指出picking crops is hard on older bodies. 与选项D契合。选项A中的rising及illegal归于惹是生非,选项B中的high mobility与定位段中的farm labors are more likely to be settled rather than immigrating对立,选项C属惹是生非。

  33.What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?

  A. To attract younger laborers to farm work.

  B. To get native U.S. workers back to farming.

  C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.

  D. To strengthen financial support for farmers.

  【答案】 [B] To get native U.S. workers back to farming.

  【解析】细节题。依据题干中的much-argued solution to the labor shortage定位到第三段终究一句,其间oft-debated对应原文的much-argued,solution对应原文的cure,剩下信息出答案,冒号解说了这个经常被议论的办法:美国本国工人不会重返农场。阐明自身的处理办法是让美国本国工人回到农场,与选项[B]共同。[A]选项attract younger laborers在文章未表现,文章仅仅说到现在的farm laborer在老龄化。[C]选项出现在文章的第四段,文章仅仅说在high-value crops上需求劳动力。在乳牛场机器人只做了一小部分作业。选项将两部分杂糅在一同了。[D]选项中financial support在文中未提及,归于惹是生非。

  34. Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its .

  A. slow granting procedures

  B. limit on duration of stay

  C. tightened requirements

  D. control of annual admissions

  【答案】 [A] slow granting procedures

  【解析】 因果细节题。依据题干中的详细信息,agricultural employers,complain,about the H-2A visa。回文定位到第六段。依据详细信息定位到第六段的,Employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need.这句话是诉苦的内容,文中问的是原因,紧接着下面一句话,the process is cumbersome,expensive,and unreliable.而且在这句话后边one survey 是比如。依据比如证明观念,下面的比如和前面的the process这句话表达的观念是共同的。一同,在比如中有for的近义词lead to,导致了arrive on the job 22 days late. Delay,late 对应选项中的slow,procedure对应process。所以选A。 B中的limit,原文后边跟着是人数66,000,偷换概念。C中的request出现在比如中,说的是visa rose sharply。D项文中未提及,惹是生非。

  35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?

  A. U.S. Agriculture in Decline?

  B. Import Food or Labor?

  C. America Saved by Mexico?

  D. Manpower vs. Automation?

  【答案】B Import Food or Labor?

  【解析】宗旨题。文章榜首段清晰指出美国农人面对劳动力缺少的问题,而这一问题的本源在于针对农场工人的移民准则。二段和三段剖析了移民签证和移民现状的抵触。第四段指出机械化并不能处理该问题。第五和六段剖析了现在农场工人所依托的H-2A签证方针也没能有助于处理劳动力缺少。第七段通过研讨查询再次确认了劳动力缺少的问题。终究一段总结指出处理计划,美国要么进口食物,要么进口农场劳动力。Labor为本文中复现的主题词。故正确答案为B选项。A选项中的decline夸张概念。C选项中的saved惹是生非,D选项中的Automation望文生义,且与原文表述相反。

  Text 4

  Amold Schwarzenegger. Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you. It’s easy to beat plastic. They’re part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day—encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics crisis.

  The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals.

  My concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. One their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit” without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions—a kind of “moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.

  While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping hags and straws, we’re ignoring the balance of power that implies that as “consumers” we must shop sustainably, rather than as “ citizens” hole our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.

  It’s important to acknowledge that the environment isn’t everyone’s priority-or even most people’s. We shouldn’t expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things. Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.

  This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will “eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.” There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.

  DeSombre isn’t saying people should stop caring about the environment. It’s just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.

  None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting businesses), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.

  36. Some celebrities star in a new video to

  A. demand new laws on the use of plastics

  B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics

  C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis

  D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis

  【答案】A urge consumers to cut the use of plastics

  【解析】从题干” some celebrities star in a new video to”定位榜首段第3句:“ They’re part of a bunch to celebrities starring in a new video for……to swap out your single-use plastic staples to combat the plastics crisis. ”意为:“鼓舞顾客削减单一运用塑料制品,与塑料制品危机反抗”,与A 选项 “urge consumers to cut the use of plastics”“鼓舞顾客削减塑料袋的运用”意义相契合。

  37.The author is concerned that “moral licensing” may

  A. mislead us into doing worthless things

  B. prevent us from making further efforts

  C. weaken our sense of accomplishment

  D. suppress our desire for success

  【答案】A prevent us from making further efforts

  【解析】依据题干the author is concerned that “crisis licensing”定位到第3段,终究一句:“they could even …to have done our bit without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions---… a kind of “crisis licensing “ that eases our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge” 意为:“……他们没有采纳更大,更显着,更有用的行动…”与A选项“ prevent us from making further efforts” “阻碍咱们进一步的行动”意义相符。

  38. By pointing out out identity “citizens”, the author indicates that

  A. our focus should be shifted to community welfare

  B. our relationship with local industries is improving

  C. We have been actively exercising our civil rights

  D. We should press our government to lead the combat

  【答案】C we should press our governments to lead the combat

  【解析】依据题干…“citizens”, the author indicates that, 定位到第4段,终究半句 rather than as “citizens”hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change. 意为:“ 而不是作为”citizens” 去要求政府和工业去推广真实的系统化的改动。弦外之音,便是作者期望政府做出改动去应对现在的景象。与C选项中“we should press our governments to lead the combat” “咱们应该向政府施压,使之主导这次反抗”相契合。

  39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be

  A. a win-win arrangement

  B. a self-driven mechanism

  C. a cost-effective approach

  D. a top down process

  【答案】C a top- down process

  【解析】依据题干可知这是一道观念细节题。依据题干要害词可定位在第五、六段“Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large number of people is for the change to be structural” 由该段可知,DeSombre以为团体性的改动大多数人行为的最好的办法便是使其变成结构性的。六段进一步从人们和政府的视点,论述了这种结构化的改动,所以选项C a top-down process,自上而下的进程,契合辞意。

  40. The author concludes that individual efforts

  A. can be too aggressive

  B. can be too inconsistent

  C. are far from sufficient

  D. are far from rational

  【答案】B are far from sufficient

  【解析】依据题干可知这是一道观念细节题。依据题干要害词可定位在终究一段,“None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action, alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.”由该段可知,作者以为并不是要扼杀个人,仅仅换一个视点去思考问题,咱们没时刻再等候,咱们需求可以构成团体行为的前进方针,以及推进革新的热心公民。所以作者着重个人的尽力还远远不够,还需求方针的进一步支撑,挑选B选项,are far from sufficient。

  【试题点评】本年四篇文章难度一般。在咱们全体的Bodog阅览傍边,所需求具有的一个最重要的才能便是怎么去看到标题之后,定准了位,而且找到那个咱们真实应该找到的方位,在四个选项傍边去找意思的原文最匹配的选项。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网强化阶段英语强化班阅览了解部分有要点解说。

  Part B

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph(41-45)。 Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

  Five ways to make conversation with anyone

  In choosing a new home, Camille McClain’s kids have single demand: a backyard.

  McClain’s little one aren’t the only kids who have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters’ views weigh heavily on parents’ real estate decisions, according to a 2018 Harris Poll survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults.

  While more families buck an older-generation proclivity to leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions, realty agents and psychologists have mixed views about the financial, personal and long-term effects kids’ opinions may have.

  The idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelming process, said Ryan Hooper, clinical psychologist in Chicago.

  “Children may face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their current school or support system,”he said.

  Greg Jaroszewski, a real estate brokers with Gagliardo Realty Associates, said he’s not convinced that kids should be involved in selecting a home—but their opinions should be considered in regards to proximity to friends and social activities, if possible.

  Younger children should feel like they’re choosing their home—without actually getting a choice in the matter, said Adam Bailey, a real estate attorney based in New York.

  Asking them questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home will make them feel like they’re being included in the decision-making process, Bailey said.

  Many of the aspects of homebuying aren’t a consideration for children, said Tracey Hampson, a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita, Calif. And placing too much emphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastic home purchase.

  “Speaking with your children before you make a real estate decision is wise, but I wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.”Hampson said.

  The other issue is that many children-especially older ones-may base their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows, said Aaron Norris of The Norris Group in Riverside, Calif.

  “They love Chip and Joanna Gaines just as much as the rest of us,” he said. “HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate. It’s not shelter, it’s a lifestyle. With that mindset change come some serious money consequences.”

  Kids tend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to them personally, Norris said.

  Parents need to remind their children that their needs and desires may change over time, said Julie Gurner, a real estate analyst with FitSmallBusiness.com.

  “Their opinions can change tomorrow,”Gurner said.“Harsh as it may be to say, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child’s opinions, but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their needs best-and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make it their own.”

  This advice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want to embrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.

2019年全国研讨生考试英语(二)真题及答案解析

  41、【答案】A(remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children)

  【解析】题干查询Ryan Hooper的观念,回文定位Ryan Hooper这个人说的话,总共两句,许多同学简单依据榜首句话(第四段)误选D选项。细心查询D选项,原文第四段说的是应该给孩子a sense of control and ownership, D选项说的是a sense of involvement,归于偷换概念,因而扫除;再看Ryan Hooper说的第二句话(第5段),依据第二句话,得出A选项是Ryan Hooper观念的等价代换,其间significant moves 对应原文中的significant moves,pose challenges to children就等于原文中的children may face serious difficulties. 故此题选A。

  42、【答案】D(thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in……)

  【解析】题干查询Adam Bailey的观念,回文定位Ryan Hooper这个人说的话在第七段,第八段。其实这两句话意思简直共同,为同义复现,第七段中的 should feel like they are choosing their home 等同于第八段中的…will make them feel like they are being included in the decision-making process,D选项中的involvement 对应原文中的being included, in homebuying decisions对应原文的in the decision-making process. 故此题挑选D。

  43、【答案】C(advises that home purchases should not be based only on……)

  【解析】 依据人名“Tracy Hampson”定位至第十段,“Speaking with your children before you make a decision is wise, but I wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.”这句话中的 wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions是 should not be based only on children’s opinions 的同义改写。

  44、【答案】G(assumes that many children’s views on real estate are ……)

  【解析】定位Aaron Norris,在原文第十一段,往前看他的观念The other issue is that…on HGTV shows句意为许多孩子对房地产的知识根据HGTV的节目,再看下一段(也是Aaron Norris的观念),HGTV has…changed how people view real estate…首要HGTV shows为G选项中media的同义替换,其次view real estate三词均可在选项和原文中找到对应,终究选项中influenced对应文中的changed,所以正答为G。

  45、【答案】F(believes that homebuying decisions should be based on ……)

  【解析】本题问的是Julie Gurner的观念。定位至文章倒数第二、三段。倒数三段中说到parents need to remind their children that their needs and desires…在此提出了爸爸妈妈要向孩子阐明needs需求以及desires愿望这两方面,而紧接着倒数二段中直接又说到their opinions can change tomorrow…可以确认JG这人关于opinions持否定情绪正好对应到F选项中的rather than their opinions。因而确认F选项为正确答案。

  【试题点评】新题型要求考生从全体上把握文章的逻辑结构和内容上的联络,了解语句之间、阶段之间的联络,对比如连接性、共同性等语段特征有较强的认识和娴熟的把握,并具有运用语法知识剖析了解长难句的才能。新题型有三种题型,不同的题型调查的要点不同,因而有不同的解题思路和技巧,需求考生全面把握,特别是关于完形填句(段)题和排序题,是对言语才能和阅览了解才能的归纳测验,因而在要求上远远高于小标题挑选题和观念例子题,考生有必要对这类题型的答题思路多操练,以前进自己在这个部分的应试才能。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网强化阶段英语强化班部分有要点解说。

  Section Ⅲ Translation

  46. Directions:

  Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  It is easy to underestimate English writer James Heriot. He had such a pleasant, readable style that one might think that anyone could imitate it. How many times have I heard people say “I could write a book. I just haven’t the time.” Easily said. Not so easily done. James Herriot, contrary to pupular opinion, did not find it easy in his early days of, as he put it, “having a go at the writing game”。 While he obviously had an abundance of natural talent, the final, polished work that he gave to the world was the result of years of practising, re-writing and reading. Like the majority of authors, he had to suffer many disappointments and rejections along the way, but these made him all the more determined to succeed. Everything he achieved in life was earned the hard way and his success in the literary field was no exception.

  【全文翻译】

  咱们很简单轻视英国作家吉米?哈利。他有着一种令人愉快的、可读的风格,有人以为这种风格任何人都可以仿照得来。许屡次我听到人们说:“我能写一本书,我仅仅没时刻。”说起来简单,做起来难。可是与咱们一般所想的不同, 正如吉米?哈利所言,他在早年觉得“测验写作游戏”并非易事。明显,即使他极具写作天分,哈利出现给这个国际的著作也是通过多年的操练、重写、阅览而且通过润饰之后才得以构成的。与大多数作家相同,一路走来,吉米?哈利不得不饱尝屡次的绝望与回绝,可是这全部更坚决了他获取成功的决计。他生命中所取得的全部,都是依托自己艰苦的尽力所取得的。他在文学范畴的成功也不破例。

  【试题点评】翻译调查考生在精确了解的根底上,依照英语语法结构拆分语句,精确、通畅翻译汉语的才能。详细相关知识点和解题思路在博狗网Bodog英语强化班的翻译部分有要点解说。

  Section IV Writing

  Part A

  47. Directions: Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit professor Smith, write him an email to

  Suppose Professor Smith asked you to plan a debate on the theme of traffic. Write him an email to

  1) Suggest a specific topic with your reasons, and

  2) Tell him about your arrangements.

  You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHETE.

  Do not use your one name. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)

  Part B

  48. Directions: Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

  1) interpret the chart, and

  2) give your comments

  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

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